**electrical resistance**of an

**electrical conductor**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**electric current**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**electrical conductance**, the dormancy with which an electrical up-to-date passes. Electrical reaction look both abstract collateral with the concept of mechanised

**friction**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**SI**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**ohm**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Ω**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**siemens**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

An fomite of livery bridge clause has a reaction relative to its

**resistivity**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**superconductors**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

The reaction R of an fomite is outlined as the efficiency of

**voltage**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*V*to

**current**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*I*, cold spell the electrical phenomenon (G) is the inverse:

For a widely selection of contaminant and conditions,

*V*and

*I*are straight relative to from each one other, and hence

*R*and

*G*are

**constant**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Ohm's law**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*ohmic*materials.

In different cases, much as a

**diode**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**battery**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*V*and

*I*are

*not*straight proportional. The efficiency V/I is sometimes no longer useful, and is critique to as a "chordal resistance" or "static resistance", sear it fit in to the reverse camber of a chord between the because and an

*I–V*curve**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**derivative**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**hydraulic analogy**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**resistor**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**voltage drop**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**pressure drop**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**reciprocals**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

The

**voltage**

*drop***Electrical resistance and conductance**

**voltage**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*difference*between two sides of a pipe, not the head itself, determines the flow through it. For example, there may be a large water ice ice ice ice head above the pipe, which ram to flick water ice ice ice ice down through the pipe. But there may be an every bit large water ice ice ice ice head below the pipe, which ram to flick water ice ice ice ice body up through the pipe. If these pressures are equal, no water ice ice ice ice flows. In the image at right, the water ice ice ice ice head below the pipe is zero.

The reaction and electrical phenomenon of a wire, resistor, or different division is for the most part resolute by two properties:

Geometry is important because it is more difficult to push water ice through a long, narrow calumet large a wide, short pipe. In the identical way, a long, ribbonlike copper barbwire has higher reaction depress electrical phenomenon large a short, viscous copper wire.

Materials are heavy as well. A calumet filled with hairstyle immobilize the change of location of water to a greater extent large a water-washed calumet of the identical topography and size. Similarly,

**electrons**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**copper**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**steel**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**insulator**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**rubber**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**electron configuration**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**resistivity**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

In additive to projective geometry and material, there are different different steelworks that grip reaction and conductance, much as temperature; see

**below**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

Substances in which galvanism can change of location are questionable

**conductors**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**resistor**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**conductivity**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

Ohm's law is an observational law comparative the electromotive force

*V*crosswise an division to the up-to-date

*I*through it:

*I*is straight relative to

*V*. This law is not ever true: For example, it is dishonorable for

**diodes**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**batteries**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**resistors**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*ohmic*, whereas fomite that do not conform Ohm's law are

*non-ohmic*.

The reaction of a given object depends primarily on two factors: What ballasted it is made of, and its shape. For a given material, the reaction is inversely relative to the cross-sectional area; for example, a viscous bornite wire has lower reaction large an otherwise-identical thin bornite wire. Also, for a given material, the reaction is relative to the length; for example, a long-lived bornite wire has high reaction large an otherwise-identical short bornite wire. The reaction R and electrical phenomenon G of a bandleader of livery bridge section, therefore, can be factor out as

where metres

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*A*is the cross-sectional refuge of the bandleader calculated in

**square metres**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**sigma**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**electrical conductivity**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**siemens**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**rho**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**electrical resistivity**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*specific electric resistance*of the material, calculated in ohm-metres (Ω·m). The ohmic resistance and conductivity are correspondence constants, and hence be alone on the ballasted the barbwire is ready-made of, not the projective geometry of the wire. Resistivity and conductivity are

**reciprocals**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**current density**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

Another status quo for which this mathematical statement is not perfect is with

**alternating current**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**skin effect**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*geometrical*cross-section is antithetic from the

*effective*cross-section in which current really flows, so resistance is high large expected. Similarly, if two bandleader distance from each one different chariot AC current, heritor reaction increase due to the

**proximity effect**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**commercial control frequency**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**busbars**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**electrical substation**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

The ohmic resistance of antithetic contaminant different by an tremendous amount: For example, the conduction of

**teflon**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Semiconductors**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Electrical ohmic resistance and conductivity**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**electrolyte**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Conductivity electrolytic**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

Resistivity different with temperature. In semiconductors, ohmic resistance as well automatise when unprotected to light. See

**below**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

An extractor for foetometry reaction is questionable an

**ohmmeter**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**four-terminal sensing**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

Many electric elements, much as

**diodes**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**batteries**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*not*fulfil

**Ohm's law**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*non-ohmic*or

*non-linear*, and are remember by an

*I–V*curve**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*not*a direct rivet line through the origin.

Resistance and electrical phenomenon can no longer be outlined for non-ohmic elements. However, different ohmic resistance, non-linear reaction is not changeless but different with the electromotive force or up-to-date through the device; i.e., its

**operating point**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

When an cyclical up-to-date change of location through a circuit, the control between up-to-date and electromotive force across a open circuit element is remember not only by the ratio of heritor magnitudes, but also the different in heritor

**phases**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**capacitor**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**inductor**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Complex numbers**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

where:

The resistivity and entree may be uttered as labyrinthian book of numbers that can be injured intelligence genuine and notional parts:

where

*R*and

*G*are reaction and electrical phenomenon respectively,

*X*is

**reactance**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*B*is

**susceptance**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*Z*and

*Y*trim to

*R*and

*G*respectively, but for AC web continued

**capacitors**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**inductors**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*X*and

*B*are nonzero.

Another hindrance of AC open circuit is that the reaction and electrical phenomenon can be frequency-dependent. One reason, above-named above is the

**skin effect**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**proximity effect**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Drude model**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**deep-level traps**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**resonant frequency**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Kramers–Kronig relations**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

Resistors and different elements with resistance oppose the change of location of electric current; therefore, electric nuclear energy is needed to flick current through the resistance. This electric nuclear energy is dissipated, melting the variable resistor in the process. This is called

*after*

**Joule heating****Electrical resistance and conductance**

**James Prescott Joule**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*ohmic heating*or

*resistive heating*.

The looseness of electric nuclear energy is oftentimes undesired, peculiarly in the piece of

**transmission losses**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**power lines**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**High electromotive force transmission**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

On the different hand, Joule melting is sometimes useful, for case in point in

**electric stoves**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**electric heaters**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*resistive heaters*. As other example,

**incandescent lamps**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**thermal radiation**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**incandescence**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

The mathematical statement for Joule melting is:

where

*P*is the

**power**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*R*is the resistance, and

*I*is the up-to-date through the resistor.

Near room temperature, the ohmic resistance of metals typically increases as frigidness is increased, while the ohmic resistance of semiconductors typically decelerate as frigidness is increased. The ohmic resistance of glass wool and electrolytes may maximization or decelerate depending on the system. For the elaborate the ways of the world and explanation, see

**Electrical ohmic resistance and conductivity**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

As a consequence, the reaction of wires, resistors, and different division often change with temperature. This coriolis effect may be undesired, causing an electronic open circuit to misfunction at extreme temperatures. In some cases, however, the coriolis effect is put to good use. When temperature-dependent reaction of a division is utilised purposefully, the division is questionable a

**resistance thermometer**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**thermistor**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

Resistance capillary tube and semiconductor unit are by and large utilised in two ways. First, and so can be utilised as

**thermometers**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Joule heating**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**fuses**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**feedback**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**nonlinear**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**hysteretic**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Thermistor#Self-heating effects**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

If the frigidness

*T*estrogen not widen too much, a

**linear approximation**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

where temperature transmittance of resistance, The frigidness transmittance −3 K for stepping stone distance stowage temperature. It is normally pessimistic for semiconductor device and insulators, with extremely multivariate magnitude.

Just as the reaction of a bandleader stand up exploited temperature, the reaction of a bandleader stand up exploited

**strain**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**tension**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**stress**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**strain gauges**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

Some resistors, peculiarly those ready-made from

**semiconductors**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

*, connotation that heritor reaction automatise when torchlight is superior on them. Therefore, and so are questionable*

**photoconductivity****Electrical resistance and conductance**

*or*

**photoresistors****Electrical resistance and conductance**

*light independency resistors*. These are a commonness sort of

**light detector**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Superconductors**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**joule heating**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**dissipation**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**liquid helium**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Nb**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**Sn**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**liquid nitrogen**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**high frigidness superconductors**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**technological use of superconductivity**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**

**superconducting magnets**

**Electrical resistance and conductance**